Detailed Introduction to the Principle of RFID Technology and RFID Tag Antenna
Detailed Introduction to the Principle of RFID Technology and RFID Tag Antenna
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Detailed Introduction to the Principle of RFID Technology and RFID Tag Antenna

1. The technical principle of RFID antenna

After the tag enters the radio frequency field of the reader, the induced current obtained by the RFID tag antenna is used as the power supply of the chip after the booster circuit. At the same time, the induced current with information is converted into a digital signal through the RF front-end circuit and sent to the logic control circuit for processing. The information that needs to be replied is sent from the tag memory, sent back to the RF front-end circuit via the logic control circuit, and finally sent back to read and write through the antenna Device.

2. RFID tag antenna in RFID system

From the principle of RFID technology, the key to RFID tag performance lies in the characteristics and performance of the RFID tag antenna. The antenna plays a key role in the data communication between the tag and the reader. On the one hand, the chip startup circuit of the tag starts to work, and it needs to obtain enough energy in the electromagnetic field generated by the reader through the antenna. On the other hand, the antenna determines the communication channel and communication method between the tag and the reader. Therefore, the research on the antenna, especially the internal antenna of the tag, has become the focus.

3. The design requirements of the RFID tag antenna

The design requirements of the RFID tag antenna are as follows. First, the physical size of the antenna should be small enough to meet the needs of tag miniaturization, which means that the key is to do the small antenna design. The RFID tag antenna has omnidirectional or hemispherical coverage directionality; it has high gain and can provide the largest signal to the chip of the tag; impedance matching Well, no matter what direction the tag is in, the polarization of the tag antenna can match the signal of the reader; it has stability and low cost. When choosing an antenna, the following factors are mainly considered: the type of antenna, the impedance of the antenna, the RF performance applied to the article, and the RF performance when there are other articles surrounding the label article.

4. The category of RFID tag antenna

According to the power supply mode of the RFID tag chip, RFID tag antennas can be divided into the active antenna and passive antenna. Active antennas have lower performance requirements than passive antennas, but their performance is greatly affected by battery life. Passive antennas can overcome the shortcomings of active antennas that are limited by batteries, but require high antenna performance.

Antennas are mainly divided into three categories: coil type, dipole, and slot type. Coil antennas are coiled metal wires into a plane or wound metal wires on a magnetic core; dipole antennas are composed of two straight wires of the same thickness and length arranged in a straight line, and the signal is fed in from the two end points in the middle. The length of the antenna determines the frequency range; the slot antenna is composed of grooves cut out of the metal surface. The microstrip patch antenna consists of a circuit board with a rectangle at the end, and the length and width of the rectangle determine the frequency range.

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